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#Exhibit of the Month

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Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM). In particular, in the archaeological exhibition, two bronze cauldrons are displayed, discovered near the village of Nicolscoe in 1988 in burial mounds no. 14 and 15. In addition, in 2020, two bronze cauldrons without any accompanying documents were found in the collection of NMHM; however, they were visually identified as coming from various excavations in the Low Dniester region, such as burial mound no. 45 near Dubăsari and burial mound no. 1 near the Răscăieții Noi village.

The object presented as the exhibit of the month is a little-known find discovered in 1979 in barrow 1 near the village of Răscăieții Noi in the Ștefan Vodă district. In addition to its outstanding size (about 10 m high), this mound is known for discovering a cast bronze finial in the Scythian animal style on its surface in 1953. However, by the beginning of excavations, the locals had damaged part of the mound and a Scythian cast bronze cauldron was found near it. The cauldron was seriously damaged by mechanical impact, as a result of which the rim was deformed, and the walls, with one preserved vertical handle, were bent inwards. Fragments in the upper part of the body and one handle have been lost. The total reconstructed height of the cauldron is 24 cm (excluding the handles), the reconstructed diameter of the hemispherical cauldron is 30 cm, and the weight is 6.5 kg. In 2020, data on the chemical composition of the bronze cauldron alloy were obtained, revealing that it was cast from an alloy of almost 95 per cent copper. Unfortunately, due to the loss of information on the context of the discovery of the cauldron at Răscăieții Noi, it is impossible to link its discovery with one or another Scythian burial of the barrow. Moreover, the grave goods of other Scythian burials of Barrow 1 do not allow them to date below the 4th century BC. However, the cauldron with vertical handles from Răscăieții Noi most likely belongs earlier. This may be indicated by a bronze finial from the first half of the 5th century BC, which was found on this barrow in 1953. In addition, burial 7 from the nearest excavated barrow 2 at Răscăieții Noi, containing a plaque depicting a rolled predator (a copy of which is also on display at the NMHM), belongs to the mid- 5th century BC. Thus, there is a high probability that the cauldron from Barrow 1 at Răscăieții Noi is associated with the late Middle Scythian period or the mid-5th century BC.

Scythian bronze cauldrons in the west area are concentrated in three main regions: Bukovina-Podolia, the Lower Danube, and the Lower Dniester. Some Scythian cauldrons have no reliable archaeological context. Nevertheless, in combination with the same "stray" finds like the Scythian statues, the finds of Scythian cauldrons mark the Scythian presence, most likely not earlier than the late 6th century or even the turn of the 6th-5th centuries BC. The cauldrons first appeared in Bukovina, where they have been known since the middle of the 7th century BC. Bronze cauldrons (with their carriers) entered the steppe region 150-200 years later, and the "military" burials that appeared in the western steppe regions were no earlier than the middle of the 5th century BC. Most burials with cauldrons (and, apparently, the stray finds) are dated back to the second half of the 5th century BC. Then, in the early 4th century BC, their quantity was reduced, and after the first quarter of the 4th century BC, they completely disappeared from the cultural practice of the population of the steppes of the North-Western Black Sea region.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2


Mysteries, myths and realities regarding the testament of Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Mysteries, myths and realities regarding the testament of Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2015

Abstract

The matter of Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł’s will is one of little-known questions. Usually this issue was considered by historians in the context of property of the Radziwill family, or used by writers in literary fiction that gave rise to many myths. In this article the author examines this question in several ways: 1) The property brought by Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł, a daughter of Vasile Lupu, as a dowry; 2) Wiano and wedding gifts; 3) Awards of Polish kings for life ownership of real property; 4) The property of her husband. The amount of the dowry of Maria is not exactly known, but according to documentary evidence, it numbered from 600,000 to 2000,000 zlotys: 450 thousand in money and 150 thousand in jewels (gold and silver). Besides, she received six starostwos (territorial units) for life tenure. After the death of Janusz Radziwiłł (1655), Maria tried to return the money and jewelry from her dowry, which was at the time under the custody of a cousin of her husband - Bogusław Radziwiłł, but he evaded the return of its property. Maria Radziwiłł has repeatedly appealed for help to the king, her relatives and tribunals, but could not get justice. She died in 1660, leaving a will. Her heirs managed to return 471,400 zlotys, which were given to 13 convents, seven churches, Slutsk School, Vilnius Boarding School, and 3 hospitals. 600 zlotys were unsubscribed to the service of forty Prayers. Monastery of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius got 200 thousand zlotys. The remaining heirs received from 400,000 to 100 zlotys. The closest relatives of Maria Radziwiłł – Gospodar Stefaniță, her half brother on the father, and her sister Ruxandra, Tymish Khmelnytsky’s widow, also actively fought for her property. The author concludes that the relatives did not appear in her will. Disputes regarding Maria’s property lasted until the beginning of the 19th century that later (and up to the present) gave rise to many legends and myths.

List of annexes and illustrations:
Annex 1. Fragment of the document: Regestr skarbnice albo rzeczy Radziwiłłowny koniuszanki WXL która posyła z Królewca. 1670, Królewic (56 stron), str. 21v-22 (Vilniaus universiteto biblioteka Rankraščių skyrius).
Annex 2. Fragment of the document: Археографический сборник документовЪ относящихся кЪ исторiи Северозападной Руси (Вильнюс 1870), 373-374, док. 91 Vilniaus universiteto biblioteka Rankraščių skyrius, F4-(A231)18003, 18004).
Annex 3. Fragment of the document: Археографический сборник документовъ относящихся къ исторiи Северозападной Руси (Вильнюс 1870), 373-374, док. 91 Vilniaus universiteto biblioteka Rankraščių skyrius, F4-(A231)18003, 18004).
Annex 4. Fragment of the document: Regestr skarbnice albo rzeczy Radziwiłłowny koniuszanki WXL która posyła z Królewca. 1670, Królewic (56 stron), str. 45 (Vilniaus universiteto biblioteka Rankraščių skyrius).
Annex 5. Fragment of the document: Lietuvos Valstybes Istorijos Archyvas, F. 1280 (Radivilos 1416-1939), A. 1, nr.
599, 76 v (Zablódow 1581-1824).
Fig. 1. Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł (copy of the portrait by Matthäus Merian (Jr.) made by unknown artist. Dział Doku- mentacji Wizualnej i Digitalizacji. Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie).
Fig. 2. Janusz Radziwiłł, husband of Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł (after Leybowicz 1758). Fig. 3. Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł (after Leybowicz 1758).
Fig. 4. Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł (from colection of M. Berson).
Fig. 5. Orthodox Church from Kedainiai (Keydani) (a-b - after Kedainiai Regional Museum; c-d - photo by the author).
Fig. 6. Bogusław Radziwiłł, husband of Anna Maria Radziwiłł (after Leybowicz 1758). Fig. 7. Anna Maria Radziwiłł (after Leybowicz 1758).
Fig. 8. Portrait of Maria (Lupu) Radziwiłł (unknown author) (https://www.google.MariaRadziwill). Fig. 9. Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł (after Leybowicz 1758).

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Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
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The conditions of the marriage concluding in the Middle Ages. Comparative study
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2007
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The unknown history of a known family: Secrets of the private life of an illegitimate granddaughter of Dimitrie Cantemir
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVI [XXXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
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The bounds of the private in the life of Antiochus Cantemir: Myths, speculations and realness regarding his secret family in Paris
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
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The Movileshti and its descendants. Unknown pages
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC