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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. X [XXV], nr. 1


The beginnings of archaeology in MSSR
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The beginnings of archaeology in MSSR

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Keywords: history of archaeology, MSSR, Echimăuți, Gradiște, Ofatinți, Saharna.

Abstract: For several decades after the Second World War the problem of the history of archaeological research is constantly present in the special studies. However, a comprehensive analysis of the history of archeology in the Prut-Dniester space for a long time was not performed. The first work devoted to studies of ancient history and archeology in the period between 1715 and 1945 was carried out by N. Chetraru.

The light on the events that took place in the MSSR after the Second World War is shed due to the documents stored in the archives of the Republic of Moldova. In this paper there are presented two important documents: the first one regarding the reforming of the Moldavian Institute of History, Economics, Language and Literature with the creation of a sub-department for History and Archaeology, dated December, 17 1945; the second one is the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the Moldavian SSR from December 21, 1945 "On preparation for archaeological research on the territory of the Moldavian SSR in 1946".

According to the latter document, for 1946 the holding of two archaeological investigations along the course of the Middle Dniester and the exploration of seven archaeological sites were planned. Towards this, a well developed budget was proposed, providing tools, instruments and supplies, as well as the creation of a photographic cabinet and its supplying with all the necessary equipment. In the first stage experts from scientific centers of the USSR had to be invited, and then the Institute should prepare local professionals.

Several reports from the archive of the National Museum of History of Moldova on the excavations carried out in 1946 bring more detail on the implementation of the decisions of the December 1945. Archaeological research in 1946 began only on June 30 instead of the planned May 1. Of the nine planned works (2 archaeological reconnaisance and excavations at 7 archaeological sites), two archaeological reconnaissance were produced on a modified route and only one tumulus was investigated instead of three as planned. However, the same year several unplanned investigations were carried out. In 1946 field investigations were conducted by experts from the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, and only since 1947 archaeological excavations in MSSR were conducted by researchers from Moscow.

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Research planned for 1946.
Fig. 2. Research on the Gradiște, from left to right: D.T. Berezovec, I.F. Mester (?) și T.G. Oboldueva (Оболдуева 1946).
Fig. 3. Research on the Gradiște. The heads of the survey and the employees. (Оболдуева 1946).
Fig. 4. Research carried out in 1946.

Sergiu Matveev
Profesorul Ion Niculiţă la 80 de ani
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Sergiu Matveev, Ana Boldureanu
A bronze Macedonian coin from the village of Tudora (Ştefan Vodă District)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological research on the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2012) (II)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Sergiu Matveev
The reflection of the ethno-cultural processes from the 2nd-14th centuries between Prut and Nistru in the soviet ethno-folck studies
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2007
Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological investigations at the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2011) (I)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC