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#Exhibit of the Month

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The exhibit represents a unique trinocle type vessel. It is dated to the Eneolithic period, the 5th-4th millennia BC, being related to the Cucuteni-Tripolia civilization (Cucuteni A-B - Tripoli B stage).

The artefact was discovered in 1986 in the settlement of Florești V, 2.5 km west of the town of Florești, currently the estate of the village of Mărculești, on the slope of a promontory, on the surface of which the traces of about 40 prehistoric dwellings were observed.

The original fragments discovered allowed a faithful restoration of the archaeological piece, offering us, in this context, an exceptional heritage object.

The piece conventionally called "vessel" represents a device in the form of a trinocle consisting of three monocles - ceramic tubes joined at the ends by means of bridges. The monocles have cylindrical bodies hollow inside, being oval in the middle, with the lip and base flared in the shape of funnels, the edges at the extremities being flat.

The red-brick colored vessel is modeled from a fine paste of clay, burned oxidizingly and decorated with painted ornament, for which natural dyes of black-cherry shade were used. Monocles identical in shape and size are painted in the same decorative manner. On the outside, both the upper and lower funnels, along with the middle of the piece and the decks, a decoration with geometric motifs is painted. The stylized ornament on the vessel is unfolded in two and three vertical levels and divided into four registers. The most important ornamented area on the trinocle is the space between the funnels in the middle area. The decoration is composed of a group of eight horizontal lines executed on the middle of the monocles and three groups of 3-4 lines arranged vertically between registers separated by relatively thick parallel bands. On the outside, the funnels are ornamented with circles inside of which are intersected by a group of three lines and a large painted dot, and around them are several foliate representations. A few spiral lines are also observed between other thick bands arranged in triangles with a concave side. Inside the funnels, the surface is rudimentarily smoothed, forming several uneven grooves, which represent the pressed traces of the tool with which the interior was shaped, and upon closer analysis, the existence of traces of the potter's fingers can also be admitted. The decor presents images of mythological creatures and symbols of religious ideas and beliefs of the prehistoric Cucutenian communities, from which the functionality of these pieces, which could be used in magical-ritual practices, is assumed.

The dimensions of the vessel are as follows: height - 228 mm; the diameters of the extremities vary from 135 to 142 mm; maximum diameter on the line of two binoculars / bowl width - 285-291 mm.

The trident vessel from Florești belongs to the classic period of the Cucuteni culture, when the so-called "binocular" vessels were very widely known. Viewed in this context, the trinocle from Florești presents itself as a unique piece not only in the Pruto-Nistrian space, but also in the entire area of spread of the Cucuteni-Tripolye civilization, from the Carpathians to the Dnieper.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1


Archaeological investigations at the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2011) (I)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Archaeological investigations at the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2011) (I)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The Saharna Mare site (Rezina district) stands out among the monuments of the Middle Dniester area by its location and the degree of scrutiny. It is situated on a high rocky trapezoidal cape with an area of about 12 hectares, surrounded on three sides by deep canyons with inaccessible shores. Only from the south the cape is connected to the outside world.

Due to its strategic location, this area was inhabited as early as the end of the 2nd millennium B.C.

This monument drew the attention in the late 40s of the last century when there were conducted the first archaeological excavations (Smirnov, 1949, 93-96; Smirnov, 1949a, 189-202; Arnăut 2000, 93-104). Since 2001, an archaeological expedition of the Moldova State University conducts systematic research on the site. The results of studies conducted in 2001-2007 have been published in several articles and a monograph (Niculiță, Zanoci, Arnăut 2008a, 69-150). As a result of these investigations there were identified several cultural-chronological horizons: 1 - presented by complexes with incised pottery; 2 - relating to the Cozia-Saharna culture; 3 - Thracian-Getae (7th - 3rd centuries B.C.).

This article contains information about finds relating to the Cozia-Saharna culture, which were discovered as a result of the excavations of 2009-2011 carried out by five digs (13, 13A, 14, 15, 18) with the total area of 444 m2. Through the matching of orthophotomaps (fig. 4/1), the results of geomagnetic  studies (fig. 3, 4/2), and archaeological research data (fig. 9/1) in the southeast of the cape there were found the remains of a “citadel” and the adjacent “fortified yard”. The “citadel” of a rounded shape (fig. 4/3), size 60×64 m (about 0,32 ha), was located on the  southeastern out- skirts of the cape; it was reinforced on all sides by a moat and a wooden stone-earthen wall. The width of the moat varies from 4,2 to 6,0 m, depth – 0,7 to 1,6 m. The wall was built of two rows of wooden pillars dug vertically into the mainland loam. The space between rows was filled with stones and earth, thus forming a fortification of about 1,0-1,2 m in width.

The “citadel” had an adjacent semi-oval “yard” in the north-west side, with the dimensions of 55×78 m, which was also fortified by a moat (fig. 4/3). The width of the moat was 2-3 m, the depth – 1,0-1,4 m.

In the “citadel” there were investigated one ground construction (fig. 21), 37 household pits (fig. 23-32), and one religious construction? (fig. 33). There was also identified a sufficiently rich and varied inventory (fig. 36-45) that allowed to attribute the “citadel” and the adjacent “yard” to the Cozia-Saharna culture.

Most likely, these fortifications were designed to shelter residents of the Saharna “Dealul Mănăstirii” settlement, which was in close proximity. In addition, the “citadel” could serve as a socio-political and religious center for the Early Hallstatt population of the Saharna region (fig. 46).

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Geographical and topographical location of the Saharna Mare site.
Fig. 2. Saharna Mare. Topographical plan.
Fig. 3. Saharna Mare. Topographical plan  and magnetometric map.
Fig. 4. Saharna Mare. Location of the Early Hallstatt “ citadel “ and the “adjacent yard”: 1 - orthophotomap (source:
Google earth); 2 - magnetometric map; 3 - plan-scheme.
Fig. 5. Saharna Mare. Plans and profiles of excavations 13/2009 and 14/2010.
Fig. 6. Saharna Mare. The plan and profile of the excavation 13А/2010.
Fig. 7. Saharna Mare. The plan and profile of the excavation 15/2010-2011.
Fig. 8. Saharna Mare. The plan and profile of the excavation 18/2011.
Fig. 9. Saharna Mare. Remains of fortifications of the Hallstatt „citadel”.
Fig. 10. Saharna Mare. Variant of reconstruction of a defensive wall of the Hallstatt „citadel”.
Fig. 11. Saharna Mare. Findings from the remains of the defensive wall: 1 - clay stamp; 2 -
zoomorphic figurine.
Fig. 12. Saharna Mare. Pottery from the remains of the defensive wall.
Fig. 13. Saharna Mare. Pottery found at the bottom of the defensive wall.
Fig. 14. Saharna Mare. Pottery found in the layer under the base of the defensive wall.
Fig. 15. Saharna Mare. Defensive moat of the Early Hallstatt „citadel”: 1 - south-western sector (Excavation 7/2003); 2 - north-western sector (Excavation 13/2009); 3 - north-eastern sector (Excavation 15/2010).
Fig. 16. Saharna Mare. Photos of profiles of the Early Hallstatt “citadel” defensive moat: 1 - north-western sector
(Excavation 13/2009); 2 - north-eastern sector (Excavation 15/2010).
Fig. 17. Saharna Mare. Early Hallstatt material found in the filling of the defensive moat.
Fig. 18. Saharna Mare. Defensive moat of the “adjacent yard”: 1 - south-western sector (Excavation 10/2006); 2 - north-eastern sector (Excavation 10/2006); 3 - northern sector (Excavation 18/2011).
Fig. 19. Saharna Mare. Photos of the defensive moat of the “adjacent yard”: 1 - south-western sector (Excavation 10/2006); 2 - north-eastern sector (Excavation 10/2006); 3 - northern sector (Excavation 18/2011).
Fig. 20. Saharna Mare. Early Hallstatt pottery from the filling of the “adjacent yard” moat.
Fig. 21. Saharna Mare. Construction no. 3: 1 - plan and profile; 2 - remains of the construction (view from the east);
3 - vessel in situ.
Fig. 22. Saharna Mare. Pottery from the construction no. 3.
Fig. 23. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile of the pit no. 104; 2 - plan and profile of the pit no. 105; 3 - plans and profiles  of the pits no.  106 and no. 107; 4-8 - inventory of the pit no. 104; 9, 10 - inventory of the pit no. 105; 11 - inventory of the pit no. 106; 12-16 - inventory of the pit no. 107.
Fig. 24. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile  of the pit no. 108; 2 - plan and profile  of the pit no. 109; 3 - plan and profile of the pit no. 110; 4-14 - inventory of the pit no. 108; 15-19 - inventory of the pit no. 109; 20-23 - inventory of the pit no. 110.
Fig. 25. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile  of the pit no. 111; 2 - plan and profile  of the pit no. 112; 3 - plan and profile of the pit no. 113; 4-13 - inventory of the pit no. 111; 14, 15 - inventory of the pit no. 112; 16-24 - inventory of the pit no. 113.
Fig. 26. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile of the pit no. 114; 2 - plan and profile of the pit no. 115; 3-14 - inventory of the pit no. 114; 15, 16 - inventory of the pit no. 115.
Fig. 27. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile  of the pit no. 116; 2 - plan and profile  of the pit no. 117; 3 - plan and profile of the pit no. 118; 4 - plan and profile of the pit no. 119; 5 - inventory of the pit no. 116; 6, 7 - inventory of the pit no. 118; 8-23 - inventory of the pit no. 119.
Fig. 28. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile  of the pit no. 120; 2 - plan and profile  of the pit no. 121; 3 - plan and profile of the pit no. 122; 4-8 - inventory of the pit no. 120; 9-15 - inventory of the pit no. 121; 16 - inventory of the pit no. 122.
Fig. 29. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plans and profiles of the pits no. 123, no. 124 and no. 138; 2 - plan and profile of the pit no. 125; 3-10 - inventory of the pit no. 123; 11 - inventory of the pit no. 124; 12-16 - inventory of the pit no. 125.
Fig. 30. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile of the pit no. 126; 2-38 - inventory of the pit no. 126.
Fig. 31. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile  of the pit no. 127; 2 - plan and profile  of the pit no. 128; 3 - plan and profile of the pit no. 129; 4 - inventory of the pit no. 127; 5 - inventory of the pit no. 128; 6-1 - inventory of the pit no. 129.
Fig. 32. Saharna Mare. Pits without inventory, which belong to the Early Hallstatt period.
Fig. 33. Saharna Mare. 1 - Plan and profile  of the Accumulation no. 1; 1а - plan of the hearth no. 9; 2 - hearth no. 9; 3 - accumulation of stones, human bones, and pottery; 4 - general view of the Accumulation no. 1 and the hearth no. 9.
Fig. 34. Saharna Mare. Archaeological findings from the Accumulation no. 1.
Fig. 35. Saharna Mare. Fragments of pottery from the Accumulation no. 1.
Fig. 36. Saharna Mare. Objects of the Early Hallstatt period (1 - iron; 2-8 - bone; 9-14 - stone; 15-27 - clay).
Fig. 37. Saharna Mare. Fragments of bowls from the cultural layer.
Fig. 38. Saharna Mare. Fragments of bowls from the cultural layer.
Fig. 39. Saharna Mare Fragments of bowls from the cultural layer.
Fig. 40. Saharna Mare. Fragments of bowls from the cultural layer.
Fig. 41. Saharna Mare. Fragments of goblets from the cultural layer.
Fig. 42. Saharna Mare. Fragments of pots from the cultural layer.
Fig. 43. Saharna Mare. Fragments of pots from the cultural layer.
Fig. 44. Saharna Mare. Fragments of pots from the cultural layer.
Fig. 45. Saharna Mare. Fragments of pottery from the cultural layer.
Fig. 46. Spreading of the sites in the Saharna region.

Aurel Zanoci
Zur Typologie und Entwicklung der Befestigungsanlagen östlich der Karpatengebirge im 12./11.-3. Jh. v. Chr.
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological research on the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2012) (II)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț
Archeological researches conducted in 2007 at the Thracian-Getian settlement of Saharna „La Şanț”
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț
Geospatial and archaeological research in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Aurel Zanoci
Typology and evolution of gates and access into early hallstattian fortresses in Tisa-Dniester space
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

The exhibit represents a unique trinocle type vessel. It is dated to the Eneolithic period, the 5th-4th millennia BC, being related to the Cucuteni-Tripolia civilization (Cucuteni A-B - Tripoli B stage).The artefact was discovered in 1986 in the settlement of Florești V, 2.5 km west of the town of Florești, currently the estate of the village of Mărculești, on the slope of a promontory, on the surface of which the traces of about 40 prehistoric dwellings were observed...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC