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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Chișinău, 2012

I. Researches


Olivier Weller
Plaidoyer pour quelques grains de sel dans la Prehistoire europeenne

Елена Фиалко
The armed women of Early Iron Age in the Northern Pontic: social aspects

II. Papers and surveys


Vitalie Burlacu
Preliminary data from the archaeological survey carried out near Răuțel village (Fălești District)

Станислав Церна, Сергей Попович, Валерий Паша
New finds from the Precucuteni settlements Cărbuna I and Cărbuna XI (Ialoveni district, Republic of Moldova)

Elena Izbitser
The Iron Curtain and Eurasian Archaeology

Николай М. Фомичев
A grave of the Catacomb culture from the right bank of the Egorlyk River

Mariana Sîrbu
The clay objects found in the settlements of the Noua-Sabatinovka type in the Carpathian-Dniester area

Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological investigations at the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2011) (I)

Ion Niculiță, Andrei Nicic
Archaeological research on the site of Saharna-Dealul Mănăstirii in 2011

Александр П. Мошинский
A representation of a chariot on a vessel from the 5th century BC, from of Digoria

Natalia Mateevici, Pavel Ostapenko, Tatiana Samojlova
Lot of amphora stamps found in the pit no. 16 from Tyras

Vasile Iarmulschi
Die griechische Amphoren in der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur

Борис Раев
The pottery kilns at the Maeothian settlements of the Kuban river and the Don river regions

Иван Власенко
The results of archaeological exploration in central and northern regions of the Republic of Moldova

Ana-Maria Bușilă
Greek and Latin harbor terminology in the ancient texts. A case study of harbors of the Levantine coast

Robin Brigand
Centuriations romaines dans la plaine de Venise

Vasile Mărculeț
La politique de l'empereur Flavius Valens au Bas-Danube 364-370. La perte de la Dacie meridionale

Светлана Рябцева
The findings of belts in the complexes of XIII-XVI centuries in the Carpathian-Balkan region

Ion Tentiuc, Valeriu Bubulici, Mariana Vasilache, Livia Sîrbu
The results of archaeological research in the Mazarache Church of Chișinău in 2010

Vadim E. Kulikov, Elena Yu. Mednikova, Yulia I. Elikhina, Sergey S. Miniaev
The method of polypolarization: an experiment in studying the ancient fabrics from Noyon Uul

Ana Boldureanu
The chronicle of monetary discoveries (VI)

III. Paper and book review


Sergiu Musteață
Marcin Woloszyn (Ed.), Byzantine coins in central Europe between 5th and 10th century. Proceedings from the conference organized by Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences and Institute of Archaeology University of Reszow under the patronage of Union Academique International. (Programme No. 57 Moravia Magna). Krakow, 23-26 IV 2007. Moravia Magna. Seria Polona III, Krakow, 2009, 684 pp., ISBN 978-83-7676-008-7

Vlad Vornic
Adrian Ioniță, Așezarea din secolele XII-XIII de la Bratei, Sibiu - Alba-Iulia, 2009, 199 pag. + 274 pl., ISBN 978-973-117-210-1

IV. In memoriam


Obituaria in memoriam Tudor Arnăut



 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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