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#Exhibit of the Month

The pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila is considered the main archaeological treasure of Ukraine (it is depicted, for example, on the logo of the Institute of Archeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). This unique artifact of 958 gold, weighing 1140 g, was discovered as a result of excavations of the Scythian burial mound of Tolstaya Mogila (Tovsta Mohyla) on June 21, 1971 near the modern city of Pokrov (then Ordzhonikidze) in the Dnepropetrovsk region. Following the excavations carried out by Boris Mozolevsky and Yevgeny Chernenko, it turned out that a mound with a height of 8.6 m and a diameter of 70 m was filled over the representatives of the Scythian elite around 350s-340s BC. The Tolstaya Mogila mound was the family tomb of the Scythian aristocracy, in which а male burial of а "king" and then, after a short period, of a "queen" with a child was performed. Then, some time after the funeral, the burial of the "king" was robbed, but the robbers, fortunately, did not notice jewelry (a sword in a scabbard, a whip) lying in the dromos at the entrance to the tomb, including the pectoral.

It is believed that the pectoral was made by goldsmiths of Greek or Macedonian origin. It is kept in the Kiev Museum of Historical Treasures of Ukraine and belongs to the State Fund of Precious Metals and Precious Stones of Ukraine. The pectoral has a crescent shape; its composition consists of three tiers, separated by two hollow tubes in the form of a twisted rope. Two more of the same tubes frame the pectoral from above and below. The upper tier features several separate scenes with Scythians and domestic animals. In the center, two half-naked men are holding in their hands a stretched animal skin, similar to a sheep's skin. On the left and right, horses with foals and cows with calves are depicted; behind them, there are figurines of Scythian servants, one of whom is milking a sheep, and the other is milking a cow, holding in their hands, respectively, a clay pot and a small amphora. In the middle tier, among the stems of plants and flowers, there are figurines of birds. The lower tier depicts hunting scenes of fantastic griffins and real wild animals. The upper and lower friezes of the pectoral are lacy; the figurines of people and animals on them are made using the casting technique on the basis of a lost wax model. These are almost completely three-dimensional sculptures, flat only on the inside. Three-dimensional figurines of birds are attached with pins among flowers, the petals of which are covered with colored enamel.

It is obvious that a certain iconographic text was encrypted in the pectoral, although its understanding is very difficult. Therefore, it is not surprising that over half a century since the discovery, more than twenty interpretations of images in the pectoral have been put forward. One of the most accurate and innovative seems to be the primary interpretation of images in the pectoral, expressed by its discoverer Boris Mozolevsky. Already in his precise, insightful analysis, the smallest details of the decor, including floral ornaments, all the movements of the figures of the lower and upper friezes, gestures and the direction of the views of the characters of the central scene are noted, although they are not always taken into account in further research. B.N. Mozolevsky also proposed an analysis of the composition of the friezes, and the interpretation of the nature of the images, especially the central scene of the upper frieze. Dmitry Sergeevich Raevsky brilliantly entered the pectoral into the conceptual model of the Scythian universe, devoting a special study to it, in which the structure of the pectoral is read as the Greco-Scythian cosmogram. The plot of the upper frieze of the pectoral can also be based on a time-varying legend associated with the emergence of the Macedonian dynasty. Therefore, the pectoral could go to the Scythian leader as a trophy captured in a clash with the Scythians in 339 BC, received as a gift during negotiations, received as a gift from Ateas for helping in the war (and he, in turn, received it as a gift when they had good relations with Philip II of Macedon). Yet much remains unclear. The pectoral has no analogies, not only in the Scythian world, but also in the Greek environment. Until now, despite the possible correspondences to its elements and techniques found in other things, the pectoral remains a special work of art, still not surpassed in the skill of execution and the lightness of the idea of its creator.

The copy of the pectoral from Tovsta Mohila, an object of historical value of the Ukrainian treasury, was given as a gift to President Maia Sandu by his Ukrainian counterpart, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, during his visit to Kyiv in January 2021 and is currently part of the MNIM heritage.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1

The clay objects found in the settlements of the Noua-Sabatinovka type in the Carpathian-Dniester area
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The clay objects found in the settlements of the Noua-Sabatinovka type in the Carpathian-Dniester area

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

In the settlements of the Noua-Sabatinovka type investigated in the Carpathian-Dniester area since 1950s to the present there have been found 255 objects made of clay. Most of these products, which were usually made of clay paste of poor quality, were toys or votive elements (balls, rings, wheels, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figu- rines, flat cakes) and only two categories have been identified as working tools (spindle whorls, spoons for pouring molten metal). The vast number of votive objects indicates the developed spirituality of the communities of Noua- Sabatinovka type and the clay working tools present two of their basic crafts: metal working and weaving.This article presents the categories of clay objects, their technological process and attribution.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Map of the monuments where the objects of clay were found.
Fig. 2. Balls made of baked clay: 1-3 - Petrușeni (after Левицкий 1985); 4, 5 - Magala (after Смирнова 1972); 6 - Cobâlnea (after Левицкий 1988); 7-9 - Căușeni (after Левинский 1986); 10, 11 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Sava, Kaiser 2004, 2006); 12 - Mologa (after Агульников, Малюкевич 2010).
Fig. 3. Spindle whorls: 1, 3 - Petrușeni (after Левицкий 1985); 2 - Cobâlnea (after Левицкий 1988); 4 - Gârbovăț (after Florescu 1991); 5 - Hansca (after Postică 1992); 6, 10, 12 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Sava, Kaiser 2004; Sava 2008); 7 - Tăvădărești (after Florescu 1991); 8 - Nicoleni (after Florescu 1991); 9 - Dorobanțu (after Florescu 1991); 11 - Bărboasa (after Florescu 1991).
Fig. 4. Zoomorphic figurines: 1-4 - Ghindești (after Мелюкова 1957).
Fig. 5. 1-5 - Zoomorphic figurines; 6-8 - anthropomorphic figurines. 1, 2 - Mereni (after Дергачев, Постикэ, Савва
1988); 3 - Odaia (after Сава, Кайзер 2011); 4 - Hansca (after Postică, Cavruc 1991); 5 - Lichitișeni (after Florescu 1991); 6, 7 - Nicoleni (after Florescu 1991); 8 - Mologa (after Агульников, Малюкевич 2010).
Fig. 6. 1-3 - Wheels; 4-10 - discs; 11-13 - spoons for pouring molten metal. 1 - Ulmu (after Florescu 1991); 2 - Ni- sporeni; 3, 13 - Simionești (after Florescu 1991); 4, 5 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Sava, Kaiser 2006; Sava, Kaiser 2007); 6, 7 - Cobâlnea (after Левицкий 1988); 8-12 - Gârbovăț (after Florescu 1991).
Fig. 7. 1-3 - Balls; 4 - flat cake; 5 - bead; 6-10 - clay objects of unknown purpose. 1 - Petrușeni
(after Левицкий1985); 2-4, 8, 10 - Odaia (after Sava, Kaiser 2004; Sava 2008); 5 - Căușeni (after Левинский 1986); 6, 9 - Bărboasa (after Florescu 1991); 8 - Ostrovec (after Балагури 1968).
Fig. 8. 1 - Spindle whorl; 2 - disc; 3 - ball; 4, 6 - wheels; 5, 10 - anthropomorphic figurines; 7-9 - zoomorphic figurines. 1-7 - Novokievka (after Gerškovič 1999); 8 - Stepovoe (after Археология 1985); 9 - Belogrudovskii Les (after Археология 1985); 10 - Babadag (after Jugănaru 2005).


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila is considered the main archaeological treasure of Ukraine (it is depicted, for example, on the logo of the Institute of Archeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). This unique artifact of 958 gold, weighing 1140 g, was discovered as a result of excavations of the Scythian burial mound of Tolstaya Mogila (Tovsta Mohyla) on June 21, 1971 near the modern city of Pokrov (then Ordzhonikidze) in the Dnepropetrovsk region. Following the excavations carried out by Boris Mozolevsky and Yevgeny Chernenko, it turned out that a mound with a height of 8.6 m and a diameter of 70 m was filled over the representatives of the Scythian elite around 350s-340s BC. The Tolstaya Mogila mound was the family tomb of the Scythian aristocracy, in which а male burial of а "king" and then, after a short period, of a "queen" with a child was performed. Then, some time after the funeral, the burial of the "king" was robbed, but the robbers, fortunately, did not notice jewelry (a sword in a scabbard, a whip) lying in the dromos at the entrance to the tomb, including the pectoral...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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