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#Exhibit of the Month

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The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC).

The vessel, with an obviously asymmetrical configuration, is hand-moulded from quality clay paste, having a smooth brown surface with gray spots. The body of the vessel is provided with a pronounced protrusion and a truncated neck with a wider opening towards the mouth. The vessel has a stem and is ornamented with three pairs of symmetrically placed relief appliqués. The height of the bowl is 15.5 cm, the diameter of the mouth is 11.4 cm, the diameter of the body is 15 cm and the diameter of the base is 7.5 cm. Such vessels in the archaeological literature are known as "askos" vessels, the respective term being of ancient Greek origin, denoting one of the primitive containers of the period - the bellows made of animal skin.

In prehistoric times, among some peoples, the bellows was transposed into ceramics, in these cases the basic features of the archaic leather vessel were preserved, acquiring a prominent convex shape with a stem and a flat bottom. From the original appearance of the bellows, the asymmetric mouth corresponding to the animal's neck has been preserved, and sometimes three or four legs, corresponding to the appendages of the flayed skin from the animal's legs. These vessels have lost their original zoomorphic character, entering as a new form in the inventory of Neo-Eneolithic ceramics. The first vessels of this type are attested in Greece, in the early Neolithic (ca. 5000-4500 BC) having the shape of cups or cups. In the Neo-Eneolithic Carpatho-Balkan cultures, the type of Aegean askos of short or tall form, with or without legs and with a handle, is found. Less often, they are provided with two mouths (one for filling and one for emptying) or they are off-center and provided with strangely shaped mouths. In the space between the Carpathians and the Dnieper, only tall forms of simple askos, without zoomorphic elements, are known. Askos-type vessels are present in various prehistoric cultures, especially in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Being often discovered in association with cult inventory, askos vessels could be an important indicator of use in religious ritual practices. Along with the zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and rhyton-type vessels (roughly conical container from which, in some ceremonies, liquids were drunk or poured), the askos were included in the category of vessels intended for worship, being related to libations (ritual act that consisted of tasting and then pouring a cup of wine, milk, etc. as homage to the deity).

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2


The First World War (1914-1918) in deltiology
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The First World War (1914-1918) in deltiology

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2015

Abstract

This article is the result of research of the museum's collection of postcards on the theme of the First World War, which was carried out in connection with the centenary since the war began.

At the present stage of the evolution of historical science a special role belongs to the documentary sources that had previously been "less required", including illustrated postcards. At the beginning of the 20th century postcards know peak of their evolution. Being very popular, mobile and accessible, during the war they fulfilled several functions. In addition to performing the functions of postal items, they become an accessible form of propaganda and a source of supplementing military budget.

The collection of picture postcards relating to the First World War comprises three categories of documents. The first one includes black-and-white postcards with representations of weapons and ammunition, scenes of the battlefield, soldiers' lives in their leisure hours, the work of the military medical service, life behind the front.

The second category includes illustrated postcards calling on the public to support the army. These are color postcards of high quality, with a lot of printed text on the back side, containing, in addition to the publisher's data, the call to the public to support the army in the fight against the enemy.

The third category contains postcards with caricatures, which occupied a special place during the First World War, as they were used as an effective weapon against the enemy, the propaganda support both on the battlefield and in the rear.

Chronologically, these postcards were printed and circulated between 1914 and 1916. There are cards with blackand-white and color images that were printed in Russia by printing houses and private publishers, Red Cross soci eties, as well as the Moscow satirical magazine "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo" ("New Distorting Mirror").

The article contributes to the study of the history of World War II in terms of the illustrative material, as well as provides information about the authors and publishers of postcards.

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Postcard Prayer before the battle. Released by the St. Nicholas Community of the Russian Red Cross Society (NMHM, FB-21336-10).

Fig. 2. Postcard (reverse side). Every 2-3 sold cards provide an opportunity to make a respirator to protect against poison gases. Released by the St. Nicholas Community of the Russian Red Cross Society (NMHM, FB21336-10).
Fig. 3. Postcard. 116. Cannon on a position. Released by G.V. Gruzintsev, the town of Luga, 1915; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co., Moscow (NMHM, FB-21336-8).
Fig. 4. Postcard. 54. Battery on a position. Released by G.V. Gruzintsev, the town of Luga, 1915; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co., Moscow (NMHM, FB-21336-7).
Fig. 5. Postcard. 127. Hair cutting near the dugout. Released by G.V. Gruzintsev, the town of Luga, 1915; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co., Moscow (NMHM, FB-21336-9).
Fig. 6. Postcard. 24. In the war. Sending wounded men from the regimental dressing station to the hospital. Released by O. Adamovich, Minsk; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co. (NMHM, FB-20579).
Fig. 7. Postcard. In Galicia. In the safe shelter during the shelling. Released by O. Adamovich, priest of the 64 Kazan Infantry Regiment; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co. (NMHM, FB-20578).
Fig. 8. Postcard. Bandaging of the wounded during the battle. Russia, 1915 (NMHM, FB-20577).
Fig. 9. Postcard. Shells for the army the glory and prosperity of Russia. Released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1915 (NMHM, FB-7788-30).
Fig. 10. Postcard. When the motherland needed guns, the factories are working day and night. Released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1915 (NMHM, FB-7788-31).
Fig. 11. Postcard. French long-range gun. Released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1915 (NMHM, FB-7788-32).
Fig. 12. Postcard. Romanian troops in the First World War. Balloon, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-33).
Fig. 13. Postcard. On the strengthening of funds of the Northern Railway Committee to assist soldiers. Russia, 1914 (NMHM, FB-7788-5).
Fig. 14. Postcard (reverse side). Take part in the accumulation of funds, buy war bonds. Russia, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-23).
Fig. 15. Postcard. Help the Army in its great work and sign up for the military 5½ loan. Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-19).
Fig. 16. Postcard. Anyone who signs up for military 5½ loan will help our heroes to destroy the enemies. Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-22).
Fig. 17. Postcard. Sign up for the military 5½ loan. Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-21).
Fig. 18. Postcard. Military 5½ loan. The more money, the more weapons and ammunition, the closer to victory.
Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd (NMHM, FB-7788-23).
Fig. 19. Postcard. Military loan. Forward for the Motherland! Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-20).
Fig. 20. The reverse side of the postcards released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB7788-20).
Fig. 21. The reverse side of the postcards released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-30).
Fig. 22. Postcard. Caricature (color). Russian hen, Slavic chickens and German thieves. Released by "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo". Moscow, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-11).
Fig. 23. Postcard. Caricature (color). The prudent son. By L. Zolotarev. Petrograd, 1914 (NMHM, FB-59353). Fig. 24. Postcard. Caricature. The spirit of hatred and evil. By A. Tzenter. Petrograd, 1914 (NMHM, FB-59356). Fig. 25. Postcard. Caricature (color). Homeward. Russia, 1914 . (NMHM, FB-5935 12).
Fig. 26. Postcard. Caricature (color). Finally, I am in Russia. Released by P. Khmelevsky. Russia, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-2).
Fig. 27. Postcard. Caricature. "The Italian fig sign". Released by "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo". Moscow, 1916 (NMHM, FB-5935-4).
Fig. 28. Postcard. Caricature (color). On the way to Paris by 11 August. Russia, 1916 (NMHM, FB 59358).
Fig. 29. Postcard. Caricature. What a pity that the world consists of only two hemispheres. Released by "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo". Moscow, 1916 (NMHM, FB-5935-7).
Fig. 30. Postcard. Caricature (color). Wolf in the kennel. Released by "Nov'", Kiev, 1914. (NMHM, FB-5935-10).
Fig. 31. Postcard. Caricature. After the defeat of museums... "nah Fatherland". By A. Tzenter. Petrograd, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-8).

Fig. 32. Postcard. Caricature (color). Delusion of grandeur. Wilhelm II. Released by A.F. Postnov's Factory.
Moscow, 1914 (NMHM, FB-59355).
Fig. 33. Postcard. Caricature. Wilhelm the Bloody (see from a distance). Russia, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-1).
Fig. 34. The reverse side of the postcard sent from Sevastopol (October 2, 1914) to the village of Răduleni (Guberniya of Bessarabia). Addressee: P.F. Sutulova (NMHM, FB-5935-5).

Ana Grițco
Building of the Hârbovăț Community of Nurses in Chișinău (late 19th - early 20th centuries): the image and history
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
Advertising postcards in the collections of the National Museum of the History of Moldova (late 19th c. - the 1st half of the 20th c.)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
Royal visit to Chișinău (1920) - images and history
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
Pages from the history of hotels in Bessarabia. Deltiologic research (2nd half of 19th - early 20th centuries)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
An exhibition full of lights
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVII [XXXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC