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#Exhibit of the Month

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This year we commemorate 350 years since the birth and 300 years since the death of Dimitrie Cantemir (October 26, 1673 - August 21, 1723), the most famous Romanian humanist thinker and also the author of the first original Romanian philosophical works.

Dimitrie Cantemir represents one of the highest peaks of thought of his time, in all areas that his genius touched - in historiography, geography, philosophy, he opened up new perspectives for development. The great scholar was well acquainted with the Muslim environment, speaking, in addition to Western, also Eastern languages (Turkish, Persian and Arabic), and also had extensive knowledge in the fields of logic, medicine, natural sciences, astronomy and music. This well-educated Christian beyzade, being a born diplomat, won the trust of Sultan Ahmed III, who favorably allowed him to familiarize himself with the documents of imperial history that Cantemir used in working on his famous work "The Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire", which still remains a reference publication in a specialized bibliography.

The National Museum of History of Moldova possesses a German edition of this work, published in Hamburg in 1745. This edition is an impressive volume of 863 pages, accompanied by a preface in German by the editor, containing words of praise and appreciation: "... we consider that such a work of great significance must be known to the Germans in their mother tongue..."

Dimitrie Cantemir was the first scholar to show that the history of the Ottoman Empire divides into two parts. The first part that of growth, includes biographies of 19 sultans and ends around 1672, when the empire entered a new phase, that of political and military decline. Through this work, Cantemir tried to draw attention to the need for an alliance of European countries against Turkish expansion. At the same time, he praised certain aspects of the culture of the Turkish people.

Like "Description of Moldavia", "The Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire" enjoyed wide popularity in European countries. The work was first translated into Russian by Dmitry Grozin, but was not printed. After the death of Dimitrie Cantemir, thanks to his son Antiochus, who became the Russian ambassador in London and then in Paris, this fundamental writing of our scholar was translated and published in English (two volumes, 1734-1735, followed by a new edition in 1756) and in French (1743, in four small volumes). In 1745, the work was also published in German. It was read, highly valued and used in their writings by Voltaire, Byron, Victor Hugo and others. This is the first treatise that addresses the issue of Ottoman power and the multicultural nature of the empire. Work on it began during the author's stay in the Ottoman Empire, resumed after 1711, and finished in 1717. This writing brought him European fame and placed him among the great scholars of the time.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2


The First World War (1914-1918) in deltiology
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The First World War (1914-1918) in deltiology

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2015

Abstract

This article is the result of research of the museum's collection of postcards on the theme of the First World War, which was carried out in connection with the centenary since the war began.

At the present stage of the evolution of historical science a special role belongs to the documentary sources that had previously been "less required", including illustrated postcards. At the beginning of the 20th century postcards know peak of their evolution. Being very popular, mobile and accessible, during the war they fulfilled several functions. In addition to performing the functions of postal items, they become an accessible form of propaganda and a source of supplementing military budget.

The collection of picture postcards relating to the First World War comprises three categories of documents. The first one includes black-and-white postcards with representations of weapons and ammunition, scenes of the battlefield, soldiers' lives in their leisure hours, the work of the military medical service, life behind the front.

The second category includes illustrated postcards calling on the public to support the army. These are color postcards of high quality, with a lot of printed text on the back side, containing, in addition to the publisher's data, the call to the public to support the army in the fight against the enemy.

The third category contains postcards with caricatures, which occupied a special place during the First World War, as they were used as an effective weapon against the enemy, the propaganda support both on the battlefield and in the rear.

Chronologically, these postcards were printed and circulated between 1914 and 1916. There are cards with blackand-white and color images that were printed in Russia by printing houses and private publishers, Red Cross soci eties, as well as the Moscow satirical magazine "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo" ("New Distorting Mirror").

The article contributes to the study of the history of World War II in terms of the illustrative material, as well as provides information about the authors and publishers of postcards.

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Postcard Prayer before the battle. Released by the St. Nicholas Community of the Russian Red Cross Society (NMHM, FB-21336-10).

Fig. 2. Postcard (reverse side). Every 2-3 sold cards provide an opportunity to make a respirator to protect against poison gases. Released by the St. Nicholas Community of the Russian Red Cross Society (NMHM, FB21336-10).
Fig. 3. Postcard. 116. Cannon on a position. Released by G.V. Gruzintsev, the town of Luga, 1915; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co., Moscow (NMHM, FB-21336-8).
Fig. 4. Postcard. 54. Battery on a position. Released by G.V. Gruzintsev, the town of Luga, 1915; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co., Moscow (NMHM, FB-21336-7).
Fig. 5. Postcard. 127. Hair cutting near the dugout. Released by G.V. Gruzintsev, the town of Luga, 1915; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co., Moscow (NMHM, FB-21336-9).
Fig. 6. Postcard. 24. In the war. Sending wounded men from the regimental dressing station to the hospital. Released by O. Adamovich, Minsk; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co. (NMHM, FB-20579).
Fig. 7. Postcard. In Galicia. In the safe shelter during the shelling. Released by O. Adamovich, priest of the 64 Kazan Infantry Regiment; Phototype Scherer, Nabholz & Co. (NMHM, FB-20578).
Fig. 8. Postcard. Bandaging of the wounded during the battle. Russia, 1915 (NMHM, FB-20577).
Fig. 9. Postcard. Shells for the army the glory and prosperity of Russia. Released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1915 (NMHM, FB-7788-30).
Fig. 10. Postcard. When the motherland needed guns, the factories are working day and night. Released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1915 (NMHM, FB-7788-31).
Fig. 11. Postcard. French long-range gun. Released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1915 (NMHM, FB-7788-32).
Fig. 12. Postcard. Romanian troops in the First World War. Balloon, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-33).
Fig. 13. Postcard. On the strengthening of funds of the Northern Railway Committee to assist soldiers. Russia, 1914 (NMHM, FB-7788-5).
Fig. 14. Postcard (reverse side). Take part in the accumulation of funds, buy war bonds. Russia, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-23).
Fig. 15. Postcard. Help the Army in its great work and sign up for the military 5½ loan. Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-19).
Fig. 16. Postcard. Anyone who signs up for military 5½ loan will help our heroes to destroy the enemies. Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-22).
Fig. 17. Postcard. Sign up for the military 5½ loan. Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-21).
Fig. 18. Postcard. Military 5½ loan. The more money, the more weapons and ammunition, the closer to victory.
Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd (NMHM, FB-7788-23).
Fig. 19. Postcard. Military loan. Forward for the Motherland! Released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-20).
Fig. 20. The reverse side of the postcards released by the Office for Small Loans. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB7788-20).
Fig. 21. The reverse side of the postcards released by the Skobelev Committee of the Assistance to the Wounded Soldiers. Petrograd, 1916 (NMHM, FB-7788-30).
Fig. 22. Postcard. Caricature (color). Russian hen, Slavic chickens and German thieves. Released by "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo". Moscow, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-11).
Fig. 23. Postcard. Caricature (color). The prudent son. By L. Zolotarev. Petrograd, 1914 (NMHM, FB-59353). Fig. 24. Postcard. Caricature. The spirit of hatred and evil. By A. Tzenter. Petrograd, 1914 (NMHM, FB-59356). Fig. 25. Postcard. Caricature (color). Homeward. Russia, 1914 . (NMHM, FB-5935 12).
Fig. 26. Postcard. Caricature (color). Finally, I am in Russia. Released by P. Khmelevsky. Russia, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-2).
Fig. 27. Postcard. Caricature. "The Italian fig sign". Released by "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo". Moscow, 1916 (NMHM, FB-5935-4).
Fig. 28. Postcard. Caricature (color). On the way to Paris by 11 August. Russia, 1916 (NMHM, FB 59358).
Fig. 29. Postcard. Caricature. What a pity that the world consists of only two hemispheres. Released by "Novoe Krivoe Zerkalo". Moscow, 1916 (NMHM, FB-5935-7).
Fig. 30. Postcard. Caricature (color). Wolf in the kennel. Released by "Nov'", Kiev, 1914. (NMHM, FB-5935-10).
Fig. 31. Postcard. Caricature. After the defeat of museums... "nah Fatherland". By A. Tzenter. Petrograd, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-8).

Fig. 32. Postcard. Caricature (color). Delusion of grandeur. Wilhelm II. Released by A.F. Postnov's Factory.
Moscow, 1914 (NMHM, FB-59355).
Fig. 33. Postcard. Caricature. Wilhelm the Bloody (see from a distance). Russia, 1914 (NMHM, FB-5935-1).
Fig. 34. The reverse side of the postcard sent from Sevastopol (October 2, 1914) to the village of Răduleni (Guberniya of Bessarabia). Addressee: P.F. Sutulova (NMHM, FB-5935-5).

Ana Grițco
A drugstore of old times Chișinău (end of 19th – beginning of 20th centuries)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
Advertising postcards in the collections of the National Museum of the History of Moldova (late 19th c. - the 1st half of the 20th c.)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
Requisition as a way of sovietisation of Bessarabian peasants
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2007
Ana Grițco
Royal visit to Chișinău (1920) - images and history
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Grițco
Constantin F. Cazimir’s activity within the Bessarabian zemstva
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

This year we commemorate 350 years since the birth and 300 years since the death of Dimitrie Cantemir (October 26, 1673 - August 21, 1723), the most famous Romanian humanist thinker and also the author of the first original Romanian philosophical works.Dimitrie Cantemir represents one of the highest peaks of thought of his time, in all areas that his genius touched - in historiography, geography, philosophy, he opened up new perspectives for development...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC