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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

Chișinău, 2017

Researches


Cristina Gherasim
L’identité sociale au milieu de la noblesse de la Bessarabie dans le XIX-ème siècle

Валентин Томулец, Сергей Сычёв
The political parties and significant personalities of the Bessarabian Zemstvo (1869-1917)

Elena Ploșnița
The Country House of the Lazo Family at Piatra. Guidelines for the museumification

Papers and surveys


Cătălina Chelcu
Legal and Tax Systems in Moldavia (Late 16th Century - 17th Century): The Case of the Dedicated Monasteries

Lilia Zabolotnaia
The first testament of Maria Cantemir, from 1725

Andrei Emilciuc
Entrepreneurial transhumance in Bessarabia (1812-1853)

Valentin Tomuleț
Mazili and ruptași (and other social categories) in the statistics of the 1817 census

Maria Danilov
The Bibliophilic value of a manuscript from Ștefan Ciobanu’s library (Ph. Wieghel, Observations on the present state of aff airs in Bessarabia, 1823)

Elena Arcuș-Jantovan
La circulation monétaire du XIXe siècle dans la Principauté de Moldavie: la correspondance commerciale des consulats français de Iasi et Galati (1803- 1866)

Eugen-Tudor Sclifos
Documents on Bessarabia in the Archives of Foreign Aff airs in Paris (1856-1857)

Petru Golban
Ethnic and social composition of Bessarabian agricultural schools

Mihail Dohot
Style and elegance in Bessarabian photographs of the 2nd half of the 19th century

Zoreana Muțac
Establishment and modification of the border along the segment of southern Bessarabia throughout the 19th century

Игорь Сапожников, Владимир Левчук
Lieutenant General and «Scientist Archaeologist» N.A. Marx: Contribution to the Research of Bender Fortress

Ioan Opriș
The civil position of Alexandru V. Boldur

Anatolie Povestca
The issue of Romania’s joining the First World War in the vision of the leaders of the political parties – the National Liberal Party and the Conservative Party

Nicolae Fuștei
An attempt of periodization of the history of relations between the Soviet state and the religious denominations

Mariana S. Țăranu
Khrushchev’s Thaw and liberation of Bessarabians from the Gulag (1953-1963)

Liliana Rotaru
Implementation of the linguistic legislation in MSSR higher education. 1989-1991

Silviu Andrieș-Tabac
Emblems of justice in the contemporary Moldavian heraldry

Mariana Gugeanu, Doina Anăstăsoaei, Nicoleta Vornicu, Gheorghe Postică, Arhimandrit Filaret Cuzmin
Religion, Archaeology, Preservation. Căpriana Monastery, the Republic of Moldova

Violeta Tipa
Museums of Poland: ways of exploiting the National Heritage

Gherghina Boda
Cultural mediation in museums

Adelaida Chiroșca
The iconographic message of the Last Supper compositions from the collection of the National Museum of the History of Moldova)

Vera Serjant
Materials related to the elite of the nobility of Bessarabia – the families of Cantacuzin and Krupensky in the collections of the National Museum of the History of Moldova

Ana Grițco
Advertising postcards in the collections of the National Museum of the History of Moldova (late 19th c. - the 1st half of the 20th c.)

Yuri Pyatnitsky
Love, Politics, and Fine Arts. The mechanical automaton “Golden Peacock” of Catherine the Great and its Byzantine model

Paper and book review


Cătălina Chelcu
Igor Cereteu, Cartea bisericească în mănăstirile din Republica Moldova. Chișinău: Ed. Enciclopedică, 2016, 503 p. ISBN: 978-9975-53-739-1Igor Cereteu, Cartea bisericească în mănăstirile din Republica Moldova. Chișinău: Ed. Enciclopedică, 2016, 503 p.

Valentina Ursu
Liliana Condraticova, Arta metalelor din Basarabia (secolul al XIX-lea - prima jumătate a sec. XX). Chișinău: Grafema Libris, 2017, 384 p. ISBN 978-9975-52-204-5

 


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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