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#Exhibit of the Month

The hoard was found in 1957 during the agricultural works near the village. At first, the hoard was in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History and later was transferred to the National Museum of History (Accession: FB: 12 576 - 12650; N: 12 658 - 12 732). It consists of 75 silver coins from the thaler category issued by the Kingdom of Poland, the United Provinces and the Holy Roman Empire in 1612-1648.

THE KINGDOM OF POLAND
Sigismund II Vasa (1586-1632)
Crown, thaler: 1628 (1).
Gdańsk, orts: 1612 (1), 1613 (1*), 1614 (1), 1615 (7), 1616 (8), 1617 (16), 1618 (4), 1619 (2), 161 (1), 1620 (2), 1621 (8).

THE UNITED PROVINCES OF THE NETHERLANDS
Lion thalers (leeuwendaalder)
Gelderland: 1641 (1), 1647 (2), 1649 (1).
West Frisia: 1648 (1).
Utrecht: 1643 (1), 1646 (1), 1647 (2), 1648 (1).

THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Kampen: halve leeuwendaalder 1646 (1), 1647 (1); leeuwendaalder 1647 (3), 1649 (1).
Zwolle: leeuwendaalder 1633 (1), 1637 (3), 1644 (1), 1646 (2), 1648 (1).

This hoard by its composition confirms the presence of silver coins from the thaler category in the Principality of Moldavia monetary circulation.

Thalers were first minted in 1486 in Sankt-Joachimsthal, today the Czech Republic, "thaler" being an abbreviation of "Joachimsthaler", meaning coin issued in Sankt-Joachimsthal. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thalers were issued in very large quantities, especially by state entities that were part of the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg Empire. Thus, thalers can be considered a quintessentially popular coin; there are thalers of several types, such as Austrian thalers, Polish thalers, Russian thalers, Turkish thalers, Venetian thalers, also called scuzi, "reichsthalers", also called imperials, löwenthalers or lion thalers, and Spanish thalers, also called piastre. In the Romanian principalities, thalers spread widely towards the end of the 16th century, and in the following centuries their circulation became very abundant, the thaler being in circulation until the second half of the 19th century. This money was a huge success, so it is also called: daalder / daler in the Netherlands, talar in Poland, dahlar in Scandinavia, tallaro / tallero in Italy, talari in Ethiopia, dollar in America. A special category is the Dutch thaler, leeuwendaalder, löwenthaler, which means "lion thaler", also called "lion" due to the coat of arms on the reverse, which is a shield with a crown, with a lion inside; it is a silver coin minted in Netherlands, where in 1575 it was decided to mint a new coin based on the scuzi. In the Romanian principalities the lion thaler appears in the last quarter of the 16th century. These lion thaler gave the name to the currency of Romania, the Republic of Moldova (leu), and Bulgaria (leva).

Orts are also silver coins from the thaler category, equal to 1/4 thaler. A quarter thaler was originally called "ortstaler", a name that was later reduced to the form "ort" (in Old German "ort" means "a quarter"). The coin circulated in Europe in the Middle Ages, including the Romanian principalities, being met in the 18th century as Polish, Turkish and German orts. The term "ort" is preserved in the Romanian expression "to give an ort to a priest" (which means "to die"), which dates back to the ancient pagan custom of placing a coin on the little finger of the deceased's right hand so that he could pay for the passage to the afterlife; With the same coin, the priest was paid for the funeral service: the family of the deceased "gave an ort to the priest" to observe church traditions.

 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1

Geospatial and archaeological research in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Geospatial and archaeological research in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

From the right bank of the Dniester, north of the village of Țipova (Rezina District) begins a deep gorge with steep slopes. Near the village of Horodiște the gorge divides, forming a network of canyons which, in turn, outline a series of headlands.

As a result of study of orthophotoplans and archaeological reconnaissance in the micro-zone there was discovered an "agglomeration" of sites, consisting of six fortifi cations (Horodiște „La Cot", Horodiște „La Șanț", Horodiște II, Buciușca II, Buciușca III, Țipova III ) and two unfortifi ed settlements (fig. 2).

In order to investigate the defense system and to determine the period of its functioning at Horodiște „La Cot" and Horodiște „La Șanț" an archeological research was carried out (fi g. 3-7). As a result, it was found that these fortifi ed settlements were surrounded by "walls" consisting of two wooden facings with a fi lling of earth and stone.

The archaeological materials recovered from the filling of the "walls" indicate that the fortifi cation of Horodiște „La Şanț" functioned during the early Hallstatt (Cozia-Saharna culture), and one of Horodiște „La Cot" - in the 4th - 3rd centuries BC (fi g. 8-12).

Based on the compact arrangement of fortifi cations and unfortifi ed settlements in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova, it can be assumed the existence of some formation in this space, the "administrative center" of which was the fortress of Horodiște "La Cot". The period of its existence is still not clear. But if we take into account that most of the fortified and unfortifi ed settlements in the Middle Dniester region functioned since the early Iron Age, it can be assumed that the community of the Horodiște-Tipova area settled down here around that time. However, it reaches its peak of development in the 4th - 3rd centuries BC, as well as neighboring communities around Saharna.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. 1 - Location of the Horodiște-Țipova micro-region; 2 - digital elevation map of the micro-region.
Fig. 2. Orthophotomap of the Horodiște-Țipova micro-region (fortifi ed settlements: 1 - Horodiște „La Cot"; 2 - Horodiște „La Şanț", 3 - Horodiște II; 4 - Buciușca III; 5 - Ţipova III; 6 - Buciușca II; unfortifi ed settlements: 7 - Buciușca IV; 8 - Buciușca V) (by Google Earth).
Fig. 3. Horodiște „La Cot". Section no. 1. Ruins of a defensive structure on the south side: 1 - plan and profi le of the section; 2 - vertical stratigraphic profi le of the debris of the wall; 3 - fragments of charred wood.
Fig. 4. Horodiște „La Cot": 1 - view of the headland from the northeast; 2, 3 - orthophotomaps tracing anomalies of the defensive line on the northern, eastern and southern sides (by geoportal.md and Google Earth); 4, 5 - remains of the defensive system on the east side today; 6 - view of the headland from the southwest indicating the rampart „C"; 7, 8 - orthophotomaps indicating the defensive lines „A", „B" and „C" (by geoportal.md); 9 - view of the defensive lines „B" and „C" from the northwest.
Fig. 5. Horodiște „La Şanț": 1 - view of the headland from the south-west; 2 - orthophotomap of the site; 3, 4 - contour of abnormalities of the defensive lines.
Fig. 6. Horodiște „La Şanț": 1 - view of the defensive line no. 1 from the south; 2 - view of the defensive line no. 3 from the south.
Fig. 7. Horodiște „La Şanț". Defensive line no. 3. Section no. 1/2013: 1 - plan and profile of the section; 2 - stones from the debris of the "wall"; 3 - vertical profi le of the defensive structure.
Fig. 8. Horodiște „La Şanț". The fi nds from the debris of the "wall".
Fig. 9. Horodiște „La Şanț". Fragments of pottery of the Cozia-Saharna type from the cultural layer.
Fig. 10. Horodiște „La Şanț". The fi nds from the cultural layer (1, 2 - iron; 3 - stone; 4, 5 - clay).
Fig. 11. Horodiște „La Şanț". Fragments of vessels from the cultural layer.
Fig. 12. Horodiște „La Şanț". Fragments of pots from the cultural layer.
Fig. 13. Horodiște II: 1 - view of the headland from the east; 2 - orthophotomap (by geoportal.md).
Fig. 14. Buciușca II: 1 - view of the headland from the west; 2 - orthophotomap (by geoportal.md).
Fig. 15. Buciușca III: 1 - view of the headland from the south; 2 - orthophotomap (by geoportal.md); 3 -orthophotomap (by Google Earth); 4 - ruins of the defensive system.
Fig. 16. Ţipova III. View of the headland from the northeast.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The hoard was found in 1957 during the agricultural works near the village. At first, the hoard was in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History and later was transferred to the National Museum of History (Accession: FB: 12 576 - 12650; N: 12 658 - 12 732). It consists of 75 silver coins from the thaler category issued by the Kingdom of Poland, the United Provinces and the Holy Roman Empire in 1612-1648...

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