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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1


Geospatial and archaeological research in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Geospatial and archaeological research in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

From the right bank of the Dniester, north of the village of Țipova (Rezina District) begins a deep gorge with steep slopes. Near the village of Horodiște the gorge divides, forming a network of canyons which, in turn, outline a series of headlands.

As a result of study of orthophotoplans and archaeological reconnaissance in the micro-zone there was discovered an "agglomeration" of sites, consisting of six fortifi cations (Horodiște „La Cot", Horodiște „La Șanț", Horodiște II, Buciușca II, Buciușca III, Țipova III ) and two unfortifi ed settlements (fig. 2).

In order to investigate the defense system and to determine the period of its functioning at Horodiște „La Cot" and Horodiște „La Șanț" an archeological research was carried out (fi g. 3-7). As a result, it was found that these fortifi ed settlements were surrounded by "walls" consisting of two wooden facings with a fi lling of earth and stone.

The archaeological materials recovered from the filling of the "walls" indicate that the fortifi cation of Horodiște „La Şanț" functioned during the early Hallstatt (Cozia-Saharna culture), and one of Horodiște „La Cot" - in the 4th - 3rd centuries BC (fi g. 8-12).

Based on the compact arrangement of fortifi cations and unfortifi ed settlements in the micro-zone of Horodiște-Tipova, it can be assumed the existence of some formation in this space, the "administrative center" of which was the fortress of Horodiște "La Cot". The period of its existence is still not clear. But if we take into account that most of the fortified and unfortifi ed settlements in the Middle Dniester region functioned since the early Iron Age, it can be assumed that the community of the Horodiște-Tipova area settled down here around that time. However, it reaches its peak of development in the 4th - 3rd centuries BC, as well as neighboring communities around Saharna.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. 1 - Location of the Horodiște-Țipova micro-region; 2 - digital elevation map of the micro-region.
Fig. 2. Orthophotomap of the Horodiște-Țipova micro-region (fortifi ed settlements: 1 - Horodiște „La Cot"; 2 - Horodiște „La Şanț", 3 - Horodiște II; 4 - Buciușca III; 5 - Ţipova III; 6 - Buciușca II; unfortifi ed settlements: 7 - Buciușca IV; 8 - Buciușca V) (by Google Earth).
Fig. 3. Horodiște „La Cot". Section no. 1. Ruins of a defensive structure on the south side: 1 - plan and profi le of the section; 2 - vertical stratigraphic profi le of the debris of the wall; 3 - fragments of charred wood.
Fig. 4. Horodiște „La Cot": 1 - view of the headland from the northeast; 2, 3 - orthophotomaps tracing anomalies of the defensive line on the northern, eastern and southern sides (by geoportal.md and Google Earth); 4, 5 - remains of the defensive system on the east side today; 6 - view of the headland from the southwest indicating the rampart „C"; 7, 8 - orthophotomaps indicating the defensive lines „A", „B" and „C" (by geoportal.md); 9 - view of the defensive lines „B" and „C" from the northwest.
Fig. 5. Horodiște „La Şanț": 1 - view of the headland from the south-west; 2 - orthophotomap of the site; 3, 4 - contour of abnormalities of the defensive lines.
Fig. 6. Horodiște „La Şanț": 1 - view of the defensive line no. 1 from the south; 2 - view of the defensive line no. 3 from the south.
Fig. 7. Horodiște „La Şanț". Defensive line no. 3. Section no. 1/2013: 1 - plan and profile of the section; 2 - stones from the debris of the "wall"; 3 - vertical profi le of the defensive structure.
Fig. 8. Horodiște „La Şanț". The fi nds from the debris of the "wall".
Fig. 9. Horodiște „La Şanț". Fragments of pottery of the Cozia-Saharna type from the cultural layer.
Fig. 10. Horodiște „La Şanț". The fi nds from the cultural layer (1, 2 - iron; 3 - stone; 4, 5 - clay).
Fig. 11. Horodiște „La Şanț". Fragments of vessels from the cultural layer.
Fig. 12. Horodiște „La Şanț". Fragments of pots from the cultural layer.
Fig. 13. Horodiște II: 1 - view of the headland from the east; 2 - orthophotomap (by geoportal.md).
Fig. 14. Buciușca II: 1 - view of the headland from the west; 2 - orthophotomap (by geoportal.md).
Fig. 15. Buciușca III: 1 - view of the headland from the south; 2 - orthophotomap (by geoportal.md); 3 -orthophotomap (by Google Earth); 4 - ruins of the defensive system.
Fig. 16. Ţipova III. View of the headland from the northeast.

Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological research on the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2012) (II)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological investigations at the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2011) (I)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț
Archeological researches conducted in 2006 at the Thracian-Getian settlement Saharna „La Şanț”
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2007
Mihail Băț
Early Iron Age settlement in Ţahnăuţi, Rezina District
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Aurel Zanoci
Typology and evolution of gates and access into early hallstattian fortresses in Tisa-Dniester space
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC