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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2


The monk-painter Irenaeus Protcenco and his famous icon
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The monk-painter Irenaeus Protcenco and his famous icon "Our Lady of Sorrows"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

The name of Irenaeus Protcenco (1888-1953), whose icons were in great demand in the interwar period and whose mural painting once adorned famous churches and chapels of Bessarabia, the Ukraine, and Romania, are now little known.

The famous icon painter created his works in great love for God. Although he did not sign his icons, they can be unmistakably recognized through the unique style.

Born in Ukraine in a noble family and named Ioan, he graduated from the Kiev Academy of Fine Arts and his graduate work was painting of the Suruceni monastery (1907-1909).

Later he worked in Chișinău, where he became great religious painter, the author of highly artistic miniatures, engravings with enamel, and icons for iconostases. The last years of his life he spent in Romania, at the Sihăstria Monastery, where he created probably the most beautiful and significant of his works. Here he died in the summer of 1953, three days after the adoption of the monastic vows under the name of Irenaeus. Those who know his works suggest that the most beautiful icons created by this great painter are dedicated to the Virgin. Of these the most significant are “Axion Estin”, “Prodromița”, and “Sweet Kiss”. But the most valuable icon of the painter is “Our Lady of Sorrows” from the chapel of Sts. Joachim and Anna at Sihăstria.

In the collection of the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova there is kept a similar icon painted by Irenaeus Protcenco. It recalls the endless grief of the Mother about Her Son crucified on the cross.

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Irenaeus Protcenco, Our Lady of Sorrows (after Bălan 2006).
Fig. 2. Irenaeus Protcenco (1888-1953) (after Aioanei 2009).
Fig. 3. Jesus Christ on the Cross, Chapel of Saints Joachim and Anna, Sihăstria Monastery (after Bălan 2006).
Fig. 4. Jesus Christ on the Cross, Noul-Neamț Monastery, Chițcani.
Fig. 5. Holy Trinity, St. George’s Church, Suruceni Monastery.
Fig. 6. Fragment of wall painting, St. George’s Church, Suruceni Monastery.
Fig. 7. Fragment of wall painting, St. George’s Church, Suruceni Monastery.
Fig. 8. Our Lady of the Sign, St. George’s Church, Suruceni Monastery.
Fig. 9. Virgin with Child, scene of the altar, St. George’s Church, Suruceni Monastery.
Fig. 10. Grave of Irenaeus Protcenco, Sihăstria Monastery.
Fig. 11. Icon of the Virgin (from the collection of NMAHM).

Adelaida Chiroșca
Icons of the Intercession in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
Eucharistic icons of Jesus Christ in the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Boldureanu, Adelaida Chiroșca, Elena Revenco
Medieval coin hoard of the 16th century from Parcani, Soroca District, Republic of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Adelaida Chiroșca
Medieval coins discovered at Soroca fortress
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
Lockets with the image of the Holy Virgin from the collection of the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2007



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC