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#Exhibit of the Month

The history of silverware goes back over 5,000 years, but only in the 3rd millennium BC, in Mesopotamia and Anatolia, the first pieces of processed silver were made. From there, the art of working with silver spread to Persia and to Europe, where already in Roman and Greek antiquity it reached a high level of skill. Many of the techniques used then, such as casting, embossing and engraving, are still used today.

The National Museum of History of Moldova possesses a rich collection of silver items, which in a special way reflects the everyday life of people of the 18th-20th centuries. The typological range of objects that make up the collection includes both secular and ecclesiastical silverware: fruit vases, bonbonnieres, cutlery, tea and coffee preparation and serving sets, salt-cellars, handbags, snuffboxes and cigarette cases, candelabra, as well as icon cases, chalices, pectoral crosses, candlesticks, and so on.

Products of renowned jewelers, such as Fabergé, Khlebnikov, Sazikov in Russia, Elkington in England, Christofle in France or Norblin and Fraget in Poland stand out for their special quality and luxury. A significant item in the museum's silverware collection is the teapot on a stand with a spirit lamp (bouillotte), made in the Christofle workshop in France.

The Christofle workshop was founded in Paris in 1830 by Charles Christofle. The workshop, which was the court supplier of the Emperor of France Napoleon III, the Emperor of Mexico and the Tsar of Russia, created decorative and household pieces of rare beauty. It was also highly appreciated by the Royal House of Romania, which granted the workshop a supplier patent. In 1842, Charles Christofle bought a patent for electroplating, a technique that involved first coating a metal base with copper and then with nickel and silver. It was this technique that allowed him to mass-produce silver tea sets, which were very popular at the time. Tea, brought to Europe in 1610 by the East India Company, was an expensive commodity that gradually gained popularity. The oldest preserved teapots, dating from the 1670s, were small. As tea gained popularity, larger teapots began to be produced, shaped to match the fashion of the time.

According to Christofle catalogs, the model was produced in 1868 and fascinates with its elegance and refinement. The teapot has a complex design including a pear-shaped container, the surface of which is ornamented with guilloché in the Louis XVI style of the late 1780s. In the upper and lower parts of the body it is decorated with a border with tulips on protrusions, and in the center, it has an escutcheon with an engraved double frame. The teapot is equipped with a folding basket-like handle decorated with triple rings, and a lid with a knob. There are two rivets on the teapot for attaching it to the stand. A spirit lamp with a straight handle and a device for lifting the wick is fixed in the middle of the stand. The item has the Christofle stamp and is made of nickel silver.

The teapot on a stand with a spirit lamp, made in the Christofle workshop, harmoniously combines the value of a unique object and a sample of a large industrial series.

Dimensions: H.: 43 cm; W.: 24 cm.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. X [XXV], nr. 2


Eucharistic icons of Jesus Christ in the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Eucharistic icons of Jesus Christ in the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

Keywords: Eucharist, liturgy, altar, communion, vine, cross, chalice.

Abstract: Many icons from the collection of the Museum are devoted to the theme of the Eucharist - the iconographic types of "The Last Supper" and "Jesus Christ "The Vine". This article presents an iconographic type less well-known in our area - "Jesus Christ "The Vine", which is reflected on the three icons from the museum. Eucharist is one of the great sacraments in which Jesus Christ, presaging the sacrifice of the Cross, gives his disciples bread and wine in the chalice referring to the bread as "my body" and the wine as "my blood". Icons from the Museum's collection represent the general scheme of this type of icons: the Savior is depicted sitting on the altar table, behind Him - the Cross, vines with grapes grows from His rib and He presses the grapes with both hands into the chalice, supported by an angel. On the left side another angel holds a large rolled scroll. On the two icons, in the upper part of the composition, two angels hold scrolls with inscriptions, on one of the icons in the Romanian language, on the other in the Old Slavonic: "one who eats My Body", "one who drinks My Blood". The theme of the Eucharist was treated in images from ancient times; it was conveyed through symbolic images of the basket of bread, fish, vine, its fruit, birds pecking grapes or the Christian meal scenes. Later, there were images in which the Savior was depicted in the vine, among the twelve apostles. Since the 16th century there are known the icons, on which at the base of the cross there is depicted the Tomb of Christ, and near the Tomb the resurrected Jesus Christ covered with a white cloth stands on the plate shifted to one side. In the hands of the Savior there is a vine growing out of the grave, and he presses the wine in the chalice, which holds the kneeling angel. These images develop into complex compositions, very common in the 17th-18th centuries in Poland, the southern regions of Russia, in Romania, Georgia, and Serbia. Such the images designed for the location in the altar are found on the icons on glass and on wooden icons. Icons from the museum's collection, which are dated from the end of the 19th century to 1920s-1930s, perhaps were created by the order of parish or the laity. They were maintained, in all probability, in the altars of churches or in the naos as icons for prayer. This assumption is confirmed by their impressive size.

List of Figures:
Fig. 1. Jesus Christ "The Vine", the first half of the 15th century, Angelos Akotantos, Greece.
Fig. 2. Jesus Christ "The Vine", the first half of the 15th century, Angelos Akotantos, Greece.
Fig. 3. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 16th century, Ioan and Sofronie Zugravul, Sucevița Monastery.
Fig. 4. The Eucharist, 17th-19th centuries, Romania, private collection, Holland.
Fig. 5 Jesus Christ "The Vine", around 1700, Hurezi Monastery.
Fig. 6. Jesus Christ "The Vine", the beginning of the 18th century, Lviv.
Fig. 7. Jesus Christ "The Vine", about 1740, Volyn.
Fig. 8. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 17th century. The Sanok Museum, Poland.
Fig. 9. Miniature from the Collection of Akathist Hymns of 1674, printing of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.
Fig. 10. Jesus Christ "The Vine", the beginning of the 18th century. The Church of the Ascension in the village of Olgomel, Brest.
Fig. 11. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 19th century, Georgia.
Fig. 12. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 18th century, A. Ponehalsky, the church in Călinești-Căeni, Maramureș. Fig. 13. Miniature, Missal of the Metropolitan Stephen of Wallachia (1648-1688).
Fig. 14. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 1927, Ioasaf Berghie, Bessarabia (from the NMHM collection).
Fig. 15. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 1928, Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in the village of Petrovka, Sărata, Odessa.
Fig. 16. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 1920s-1930s, Irinei Protchenko, Bessarabia from the NMHM collection).
Fig. 17. Jesus Christ "The Vine", 1920s-1930s, Bessarabia (from the NMHM collection).

Adelaida Chiroșca
The monk-painter Irenaeus Protcenco and his famous icon "Our Lady of Sorrows"
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
Two monetary treasures from the 16th and the 17th centuries from the collections of the NMAHM
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
The image of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the collection of icons of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
Icons of the Intercession in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
17th c. coin hoard discovered in Ciocilteni village, Orhei district
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie


 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The history of silverware goes back over 5,000 years, but only in the 3rd millennium BC, in Mesopotamia and Anatolia, the first pieces of processed silver were made. From there, the art of working with silver spread to Persia and to Europe, where already in Roman and Greek antiquity it reached a high level of skill. Many of the techniques used then, such as casting, embossing and engraving, are still used today...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC