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The great ruler Stephen the Great, outstanding army commander and diplomat, was also concerned during his life with the economic prosperity of the country, supporting the development of crafts, trade and fairs. During his reign, groși and half groși minted in the dinar system were issued, a monetary system introduced in Moldova during the last reign of Petru Aron (1455-1457).

The coins were minted from silver of superior title, those that reflect stability in the economic life of the country at that time. Their masterful execution at the Suceava mint is among the beautiful artistic achievements during the reign of Stephen the Great.

During his reign, two types of issues were minted, for the two denominations: groși and half groși.

Type I issues have a split shield on the obverse; in the first quarter appears a rose surmounted by a cross and three fascias, in the second quarter. For the epigraph issues (groși), the image is accompanied by the circular legend with the name of the issuer: + STEFANVS VOIEVODA. On the other side appears the bour's head with a star between the horns accompanied by the heraldic furniture - the rose and the contoured crescent, placed to the right and left of the bour's head; circular legend: MOLDAVIE COIN.

On type II coins in the shield on the obverse appears a patriarchal cross (double) and the legend STEFANVSVOIEVOD or abbreviated STEFANVSVOIE. On the reverse, as in type I, the bour's head with heraldic attributes is preserved: rose right/crescent left and crescent right/rose left. A star or rose appears between the ox's horns. The legend accompanying the face with the bour head is MONETAMOLDAVI or abbreviated MONETAMOLDA.

The dating of Stephen the Great's coins is still under discussion. According to one opinion, type I issues were minted between 1457-1476, and type II between 1480/1481-1505 (Octavian Iliescu), and another 1465/1467-1475/1476 for type I and 1476/1479-1497 for type II (Ernest Oberländer-Târnoveanu).

The coins in this showcase were discovered during the archaeological excavations at Orheiul Vechi (Trebujeni, Orhei district) in the 6th and 7th decades of the 20th century:

1. Type I money issues, groși, silver
2. Type II money issues, groși, silver
3. Type II coin issue, half groși, silver

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2


The image of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the collection of icons of the National Museum of History of Moldova
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The image of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the collection of icons of the National Museum of History of Moldova

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

The six icons from the collection of Marian icons from the National Museum of History of Moldova represent the image of Our Lady of Hârbovăț. Of these, three are large processional ones and the others are smaller, home icons. The techniques of their manufacture are different: from tempera and oil on wood and gilding with gold leaf to chasing the fish glue gesso and enamel paints. All these icons are Russian and Bessarabian and are dated from the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

As is known, the appearance of the icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț in the monastery dates from the late 18th century and is connected with the name of a Russian officer Nikolai Albaduev. Sources indicate that it was a family heirloom, handed down from generation to generation. In the monastery it proved to be a miracle-working icon. Multiple copies of it have spread in Bessarabia and beyond, and soon the image has become widely known as the icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț.

On April 17, 1859 the Holy Synod has recognized its miraculous properties and approved the requests of Chisinau residents, allowing annually, from October 1 to April 17, with a procession to transfer the icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the monastery to Chișinău.

This image is of the Hodegetria type. The image of the Virgin is presented till the knees; she holds the Child on her left hand and points at him with her right hand. The Savior blesses with his right hand, and in his left hand he holds a scroll. Their heads are inclined to each other. The distinctive elements of this type of Marian iconography are the outstretched more than usual right arm of the Savior, his light shirt with a belt, sad face of the Virgin and floral decoration of her garments.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț.

Fig. 2. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Ascension Monastery at the village of Japca, Florești District.

Fig. 3. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Noul Neamț Monastery of the Holy Ascension, Slobozia district.

Fig. 4. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the village of Sârcova, Rezina District.

Fig. 5. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the village of Sârcova, Rezina District.

Fig. 6. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Church of All Saints in the Armenian Cemetery in Chișinău.

Fig. 7. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Savior's Transfiguration Monastery in Bolgrad, Ukraine.

Fig. 8. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Archangel Michael Monastery in Odessa, Ukraine.

Fig. 9. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the St. Paraskeva Church at Furatovka village, Odessa Region, Ukraine.

Fig. 10. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Cathedral of the Holy Great Martyr Theodore the Tyron in Chișinău.

Fig. 11. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the Cathedral of the Holy Great Martyr Theodore the Tyron in Chișinău (painter Ioan Protcenco).

Fig. 12. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, from the Assumption Monastery at Hârbovăț.

Fig. 13. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, the NMHM collection (FB-22918-3).

Fig. 14. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, the NMHM collection (FB-22918-11).

Fig. 15. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, the NMHM collection (FB-22918-44).

Fig. 16. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, the NMHM collection (FB-22642).

Fig. 17. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, the NMHM collection (FB-14736).

Fig. 18. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț, the NMHM collection (FB-1540).

Fig. 19. Icon of Our Lady "Il'inskaya Chernigovskaya" from the St. Trinity Monastery of St. Elijah in Chernihiv, Ukraine.

Fig. 20. Icon of Our Lady "Chernigovskaya Gefsimanskaya" from the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, Sergiyev Posad, Russia.

Fig. 21. Icon of Our Lady of Trigorie from the Holy Transfiguration Monastery at the village of Trigorie, Ukraine.

Fig. 22. Icon of Our Lady of Barkolabovo from the Ascension Monastery at the village of Barkolabovo, Belarus.

Fig. 23. Icon of Our Lady of Lublin from the Monastery of the Miracle of Archangel Michael at Chonae (Chudov Monastery) in Moscow, Russia.

Fig. 24. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț.

Fig. 25. Icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăț from the St. Vladimir's Cathedral in Kiev, Ukraine.

Adelaida Chiroșca
Nativity of Christ: interpretation of the plot in icons from the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVII [XXXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
The monk-painter Irenaeus Protcenco and his famous icon "Our Lady of Sorrows"
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Ana Boldureanu, Adelaida Chiroșca, Elena Revenco
Medieval coin hoard of the 16th century from Parcani, Soroca District, Republic of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Adelaida Chiroșca
Medieval coins discovered at Soroca fortress
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Adelaida Chiroșca
Iconographic patterns of the Dormition of the Mother of God in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2015



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

The great ruler Stephen the Great, outstanding army commander and diplomat, was also concerned during his life with the economic prosperity of the country, supporting the development of crafts, trade and fairs. During his reign, groși and half groși minted in the dinar system were issued, a monetary system introduced in Moldova during the last reign of Petru Aron (1455-1457)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC