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#Exhibit of the Month

The pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila is considered the main archaeological treasure of Ukraine (it is depicted, for example, on the logo of the Institute of Archeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). This unique artifact of 958 gold, weighing 1140 g, was discovered as a result of excavations of the Scythian burial mound of Tolstaya Mogila (Tovsta Mohyla) on June 21, 1971 near the modern city of Pokrov (then Ordzhonikidze) in the Dnepropetrovsk region. Following the excavations carried out by Boris Mozolevsky and Yevgeny Chernenko, it turned out that a mound with a height of 8.6 m and a diameter of 70 m was filled over the representatives of the Scythian elite around 350s-340s BC. The Tolstaya Mogila mound was the family tomb of the Scythian aristocracy, in which а male burial of а "king" and then, after a short period, of a "queen" with a child was performed. Then, some time after the funeral, the burial of the "king" was robbed, but the robbers, fortunately, did not notice jewelry (a sword in a scabbard, a whip) lying in the dromos at the entrance to the tomb, including the pectoral.

It is believed that the pectoral was made by goldsmiths of Greek or Macedonian origin. It is kept in the Kiev Museum of Historical Treasures of Ukraine and belongs to the State Fund of Precious Metals and Precious Stones of Ukraine. The pectoral has a crescent shape; its composition consists of three tiers, separated by two hollow tubes in the form of a twisted rope. Two more of the same tubes frame the pectoral from above and below. The upper tier features several separate scenes with Scythians and domestic animals. In the center, two half-naked men are holding in their hands a stretched animal skin, similar to a sheep's skin. On the left and right, horses with foals and cows with calves are depicted; behind them, there are figurines of Scythian servants, one of whom is milking a sheep, and the other is milking a cow, holding in their hands, respectively, a clay pot and a small amphora. In the middle tier, among the stems of plants and flowers, there are figurines of birds. The lower tier depicts hunting scenes of fantastic griffins and real wild animals. The upper and lower friezes of the pectoral are lacy; the figurines of people and animals on them are made using the casting technique on the basis of a lost wax model. These are almost completely three-dimensional sculptures, flat only on the inside. Three-dimensional figurines of birds are attached with pins among flowers, the petals of which are covered with colored enamel.

It is obvious that a certain iconographic text was encrypted in the pectoral, although its understanding is very difficult. Therefore, it is not surprising that over half a century since the discovery, more than twenty interpretations of images in the pectoral have been put forward. One of the most accurate and innovative seems to be the primary interpretation of images in the pectoral, expressed by its discoverer Boris Mozolevsky. Already in his precise, insightful analysis, the smallest details of the decor, including floral ornaments, all the movements of the figures of the lower and upper friezes, gestures and the direction of the views of the characters of the central scene are noted, although they are not always taken into account in further research. B.N. Mozolevsky also proposed an analysis of the composition of the friezes, and the interpretation of the nature of the images, especially the central scene of the upper frieze. Dmitry Sergeevich Raevsky brilliantly entered the pectoral into the conceptual model of the Scythian universe, devoting a special study to it, in which the structure of the pectoral is read as the Greco-Scythian cosmogram. The plot of the upper frieze of the pectoral can also be based on a time-varying legend associated with the emergence of the Macedonian dynasty. Therefore, the pectoral could go to the Scythian leader as a trophy captured in a clash with the Scythians in 339 BC, received as a gift during negotiations, received as a gift from Ateas for helping in the war (and he, in turn, received it as a gift when they had good relations with Philip II of Macedon). Yet much remains unclear. The pectoral has no analogies, not only in the Scythian world, but also in the Greek environment. Until now, despite the possible correspondences to its elements and techniques found in other things, the pectoral remains a special work of art, still not surpassed in the skill of execution and the lightness of the idea of its creator.

The copy of the pectoral from Tovsta Mohila, an object of historical value of the Ukrainian treasury, was given as a gift to President Maia Sandu by his Ukrainian counterpart, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, during his visit to Kyiv in January 2021 and is currently part of the MNIM heritage.


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Exhibitions




    
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„Puzzle-Germany”  

October 6 – 27, 2015
Germany was divided for over 40 years until reunification on October 3rd, 1990. On October 3rd, 2015 is marked the 25th anniversary from this historic moment highly important for the contemporary history of the Federal Republic of Germany and for European history. October 3rd is the day Germany has become one country on the map of Europe...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
„Settlements from the late Bronze Age in the space between Prut and Dniester (achievements and perspectives)” 

September 24 - October 12, 2015
The exhibition „Settlements from Late Bronze Age in the space between Prut and Dniester Rivers. Achievements and perspectives" was organized in collaboration with the National Archaeological Agency and is dedicated to Noua-Sabatinovka type settlements discovered on the territory of Republic of Moldova in the last 60 years...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
„Heritage values form the collections of Ştefan Procopiu Museum of Science and Technique” 

September 23 - October 26, 2015
The exhibition „Heritage values form the collections of Ştefan Procopiu Museum of Science and Technique" was organized in collaboration with "Moldova" National Museum Complex from Iași in the framework of European Heritage Days with the theme for 2015 „Industrial and technical heritage"...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
„2015, European Year of Industrial and Technical Heritage” 

September 23 – October 26, 2015
Exhibition „2015, European Year of Industrial and Technical Heritage" was organized in collaboration with the Agency for Inspection and Restoration of Monuments as part of the European Heritage Days...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
„Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe: the case of the Tripillia mega-sites”  

September 9 – November 6, 2015
The international traveling exhibition „Trypillia Megasites" was organized as part of the UK-Ukrainian project „Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe: the case of the Trypillia mega-sites" (2012-2016), funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Painting exhibition „Metamorphoses of space III” 

August 28th - September 6th 2015
On august 28th, in the ground floor hall of the National Museum of History of Moldova was opened an exhibition of Ukrainian plastic artists from the Republic of Moldova with the generic „Metamorphoses of space III"...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
"Ion Ungureanu, a destiny lit by the Evening Star" 

August 1 - September 15, 2015
The National Museum of History of Moldova invites you to visit the exhibition "Ion Ungureanu, a destiny lit by the Evening Star", dedicated to the illustrious scholar, former Minister of Culture of the Republic of Moldova, artist of the people, laureate of the National Prize, Knight of the Order of the Republic...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Exhibition dedicated to the Academy “Stefan cel Mare” of the Ministry of Internal Affaires 

June 30 - July 12, 2015
On 30 June 2015, the National Museum of History of Moldova opened a temporary exhibition reflecting the history of the Academy "Stefan cel Mare" of the Ministry of Internal Affaires to celebrate the 25th anniversary of its founding...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Origami exhibition „My sweet childhood” 

May 27th – June 10th 2015
On the occasion of the International Children's Day, at the National Museum of History of Moldova will be organized an origami exhibition with the generic „My sweet childhood". The exhibition will be on display in the hall on the ground floor and is organized in collaboration with the Association "Origami Moldova"...


National Museum of History of Moldova, 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova

 



Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The pectoral from Tolstaya Mogila is considered the main archaeological treasure of Ukraine (it is depicted, for example, on the logo of the Institute of Archeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). This unique artifact of 958 gold, weighing 1140 g, was discovered as a result of excavations of the Scythian burial mound of Tolstaya Mogila (Tovsta Mohyla) on June 21, 1971 near the modern city of Pokrov (then Ordzhonikidze) in the Dnepropetrovsk region. Following the excavations carried out by Boris Mozolevsky and Yevgeny Chernenko, it turned out that a mound with a height of 8.6 m and a diameter of 70 m was filled over the representatives of the Scythian elite around 350s-340s BC. The Tolstaya Mogila mound was the family tomb of the Scythian aristocracy, in which а male burial of а "king" and then, after a short period, of a "queen" with a child was performed. Then, some time after the funeral, the burial of the "king" was robbed, but the robbers, fortunately, did not notice jewelry (a sword in a scabbard, a whip) lying in the dromos at the entrance to the tomb, including the pectoral...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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