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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

Chișinău, 2011

I. Researches


Lilia Zabolotnaia
Marriage institution during middle ages: obstacles and prohibitions. Exploration of historical anthropology and comparative studies

Bogdan Bucur
Wallachian great boyars in the process of transition from „the old agrarian feudal system” to „the new era of bourgeois revolution”. Critical review of the Stefan Zeletin’s political and economic conception

Andrei Emilciuc
Salt trade in Bessarabia in the context of the inclusion of the province in the economic system of the Russian Empire (1812-1850)

Yuri Pyatnitsky
An Imperial Eye to the Past: Byzantine exhibitions in the State Hermitage museum, 1861-2006

II. Papers and surveys


Silvia Barcari
Some considerations about the location of Vicina (the late 13th - the 1st half of the 14th centuries) reflected in the Romanian historiography

Vasile Mărculeț
Considérations concernant le titre et le statut politique-juridique international des dynastes de la Dobroudja du XIVe siècle

Mihai Onilă
Veprova-Puțintei village, Orhei county – chronology and borders

Sergius Ciocanu
Orhei district Mașcăuți hermitage („al lui Albu pârcălab”) and Mașcăuți estate

Vasile Iucal
Some considerations on the age and origin of name in light Ungheni written documents

Igor Cereteu
Historic events from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries attested in notes from manuscripts and old books from the Principality of Moldova

Alina Felea
Cantemir’ s wills. Case Study (XVIII - beginning XIX centuries)

Tatiana Chicaroș
Legislative basis of secondary education in the Russian Empire in the modern era

Irina Cereș
Impact of the high taxes imposed upon the population of Romanian principalities during the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812

Silvia Pantaz
Certains aspects de la politique impériale russe dans le commerce avec la Principauté de Moldavie (1812-1859)

Cristina Gherasim
About changes in the mentality of the Bessarabian nobility during 1830-1840s

Nicolae Fuștei
Pastoral-social service of the Metropolitan Gabriel Banulescu-Bodoni

Dinu Poștarencu
Petitions of the Bessarabian nobility for the teaching of Romanian language in schools of the province

Maria Danilov
Censorship, library and books (the 19th century)

Александр Пономарёв
New data on Alexander Sturdza from Odessa archives (two unpublished letters of the middle of 19th century)

Valentin Tomuleț
Jewish colonies in Bessarabia in the 19th century

Ion Varta
The first manifest of 1864 against a possible unification of Bessarabia with Romania

Ana Grițco
Pages from the history of hotels in Bessarabia. Deltiologic research (2nd half of 19th - early 20th centuries)

Vera Serjant
Advertisements of trading houses and shops in the Bessarabian press (the late 19th - early 20th centuries)

Лилиана Кондратикова
Le rôle et le place de femme-joaillerie dans l’évolution de l’art décorative du Moldova (1960-1990)

Nicolae Gîrbu
From the history of legal institutions in MSSR (1978-1991)

Ovidiu Turtureanu
Crises of the totalitarian-communist system and aggravation of conflict states in MSSR (1985-1991)

Vera Stăvilă
The “Luceafărul” Republican Theatre for Children and Youth: Pages of History

Octavian Zelinski
Le progrès accomplis dans la réforme macroéconomique dans les pays de la CEI. Recherche comparée avec l‘appui sur la réforme agraire en République de Moldova

Silviu Andrieș-Tabac
The flags derived from the state flag of Republic of Moldova

Ольга Щипакина
Collection of badges from the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova

Gheorghe Pisica
Code of ethics of museums – main operating base of contemporary museum

Sergiu Dobrea
Memorial museum in the Republic of Moldova: typology and classification

Elena Ploșnița
Historical museum and scientific research: technology of the interaction

Lucia Marinescu-Tonu
Pedagogy of Cultural Heritage: between illusion and reality

Elena Ploșnița
On a museum exhibition “The Universe of Calendars”

III. Paper and book review


Ion Chirtoagă
Иоганн Тунманн, Крымское Ханство, Симферополь: Таврия, 1991, 92 p.

Maria Danilov
Florin Marinescu, Vlad Mischevca, Cărțile românești din biblioteca mănăstirii athonite Sfântul Pavel, Atena, 2010, 285 p., ISBN: 979-960-85542-3-8

Maria Danilov
Andrei Eșanu, Valentina Eșanu, Moștenirea culturală a Cantemireștilor, Chișinău: Pontos, 2010, 212 p. ISBN 978-9975-51-204-6

Liliana Condraticova
Ion Xenofontov, Războiul din Afghanistan (1979-1989) în memoria participanților din Republica Moldova. Realitatea istorică și imaginarul social. Iași: Lumen, 2010, 544 p.



 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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