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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

Chișinău, 2008

I. Researches


Ion Eremia
One Moscow historian’s view on the Relations of the Danube Principalities with the Ottoman Empire and with Russia

Lilia Zabolotnaia
The Movileshti and its descendants. Unknown pages

Valentin Tomuleț
The protests and the revindications of the Bessarabian people in the first decades after the annexation of the territories between the Prut and Dniester rivers to Russia (years 1812-1828)

Alexandra Zbuchea
Marketing as a key element in achieving museum’s mission

II. Papers and surveys


Vlad D. Ghimpu
Les contacts et les relations entre les Roumains et les Russes kiéviens aux IX-ième et X-ième siècles

Anatol P. Gorodenco
South Moldova in the second part of XIV century

Ana Niculiță
Regarding two medieval coin hoards from Florești district, Republic of Moldova

Adelaida Chiroșca
17th c. coin hoard discovered in Ciocilteni village, Orhei district

Janusz Skoczylas, Marek Żyromski
The stonemasons’ signs in the social and political context

Nicolae Fuștei
Books of metropolitan Dosoftei kept in various European collections

Alina Felea
Some dates of family Imbault

Sergius Ciocanu
Orhei district Peștera hermitage and Peștera estate. From the first mentions to the 19th century

Igor Cereteu
The Transylvanien printings from Basarabia (from the second half of XVIIIth and the first decades of XXth centuries

Ирина Гончарова
Medals by Carl Leberecht in the collections of the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova

Emanuil Brihuneț
Late medieval commemorative monuments from the Prut-Dniester space

Dinu Poștarencu
Transfer of Soroca town from private property to state property

Teodor Candu
Contribution at the research of the abuses of submitted monasteries abbot from Moldova (1806-1812): the case of Daniil vs. Theodorit from Floreshti Monastery

Lucia Argint
Historiographical thoughts over the particularities of the Russian and Moldavian administrative system at the beginning of the 19th century

Andrei Emilciuc
Commercial navigation on the Dniester River (1812-1853)

Maria Danilov
The Biblical movement in Bessarabia. Imperial context and local specifics

Silvia Corlăteanu-Granciuc
Documentary returns. A church register of avowal from the 19th century

Maria Maftei
The economic situation in Cahul county during 30ies - 50ies of the 19th century

Natalia Timohina
The relationships between Russian armies and native populations of the Moldavian and Romanian kingdoms in the ears of the Crimean war (1853-1856)

Tatiana Chicaroș
L’évolution de l’enseignement de lycée en Bessarabie sous la domination tsariste (1833-1917)

Vera Serjant
First “advertisements” in the Bessarabian press (1854-1899)

Silviu Andrieș-Tabac
Les Symboles de la République Démocratique Moldave (1917-1918). Interprétation sémantique

Sorin Trîncă
Interconfessional relations (orthodox-greek-catholic) during return to orthodoxy in 1918-1928. On the example of Transilvaniya)

Elena Postică
Bessarabian prominent figures in the Romanian governments during the inter-war period

Vera Stăvilă
The history of the Bessarabian Belle Arte School and Society

Ольга Щипакина
History of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic civil air forces formation (1944-1957)

Octavian Zelinski
Considérations sur la situation économique dans le secteur agraire de la République Socialiste Soviétique de Moldavie dans la seconde moitié des années ‘80 du XX-ème siécle

Elena Ploșnița
Some considerations regarding the designing of a permanent exposition of the history museum

III. Paper and book review


Ion Eremia
Documente Bucovinene, vol. VII / Teodor Balan, Iași, TAIDA, 2005, XX p. + 318 p.; vol VIII, XVI p. +234 p. - vol. IX, Iași, TAIDA, 2006, XII p. + 164 p.

Ion Eremia
Valentina Eșanu, Andrei Eșanu, Bogdan al II-lea și Maria Oltea – părinții lui Ştefan cel Mare și Sfânt. Chișinău, Prut Internațional, 2007, 160 p. +Anexă: Voievozii Ţării Moldovei de la Bogdan I până la Ştefan cel Mare și Sfânt și urmașii lui

Silvia Corlăteanu-Granciuc
Gheorghe Nicolaev, Sergiu Tabuncic, Ţara Moldovei în timpul domniei lui Ştefan cel Mare și Sfânt. Ţinuturi, orașe, cetăți, ctitorii, așezări rurale atestate documentar, Centrul Editorial Integritas, 2007. Planșă

Ion Eremia
Antoine François Le Clerc, Memoriu Topografi c și Statistic asupra Basarabiei, Valahiei și Moldovei, Provincii ale Turciei în Europa. Ediție îngrijită, studiu introductiv, note și comentarii de Ioan-Aurel Pop și Sorin Şipoș. Traducere din limba franceză de Delia-Maria Radu; însoțită de reproducerea manuscrisului original. Institutul Cultural Român. Cluj-Napoca, 2004. LII +90 p.

Valentin Tomuleț
Maria Danilov, Cenzura sinodală și cartea religioasă în Basarabia. 1812-1918 (între tradiție și politica țaristă), Biblioteca Tyragetia XIII. – Chișinău, 2007 (Tipogr. „Bons Offi ces”), 264 p.



 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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